About this Vendor

Memories to go back to everyday.

We have taken stunning images and produced quality videos using top of the line digital equipment since 1995. Our portfolio speaks for itself. Based on our effective process, hard work, and unmatched customer service, we are proud to ensure absolute satisfaction to all of our clients.


Photo + Video Styles

Documentary, Lifestyle

Photo Shoot Types


Starting Price Range


Wedding Categories

Wedding Albums


Contact Info

3001 W. Big Beaver rd., Troy , MI

Reviewed on 7/08/2015 Cassandra Z

Studio 41 was hands down the single best decision I made for my big day. Steve's incredible talent is undeniable. One look at his portfolio proves that he is an amazing professional whose work would be hard to match. Just look at his sample photos. What his portfolio doesn't... Read More show is his wonderful persona behind the camera. Steve directed every single detail of our entire bridal party to get perfectly posed shots without any photo series becoming tedious. We were laughing all day. My husband and I are not people who naturally pose ourselves into what would be called attractive positions, and yet every single picture of us makes us look like characters from a fairy tale. That is thanks to Steve. He can find magical shots in the most unattractive scenery. Somehow the photos we took outside of a Hampton Inn look like we're in a botanical garden. I should also mention that it is due in large to Steve that our day stayed on schedule. He took photos that I didn't even realize I wanted (until I saw them later) while I was getting ready, and then kept the entire 12 person bridal party in line all the way to the reception. He immediately figured out our group dynamic and played into our personalities to get perfect candid and posed shots of the whole group. He and his assistant, Sam, really clicked with everyone, and I think that made a world of difference. It would be impossible not to be at ease with Steve's direction, and it's this that really sets him apart from other talented photographers. Steve worked with us to create a custom package that fit within our budget, but after seeing the nearly 4,000 beautifully edited shots he created for us, I would have happily paid double my budget to work with him. I cannot recommend him highly enough to everyone. There were even guests at our wedding who have already hired Steve for their own events. He's that impressive. Again, Studio 41 is the best decision we made for our big day.

2015-07-08T21:18:51 Response from the vendor

Hi Cassie, thank you so much for this wonderful and amazing review. I am humbled and we were both honored to have been part of your day. All of you made it fun, and easy to work with to get our shots. So, please give... Read Less Read More

My wedding photos are a dream! Thank you Studio 41!

Reviewed on 2/10/2015 Mariam F

Let me start off my saying Steve and his team at Studio 41 are by far THE BEST IN THE BUSINESS. You honestly cannot find a more dedicated, passionate, and hard working team that delivers like Studio 41. Out of all the vendors I worked with, Steve was my favorite. He is... Read More hilarious, he made the day so much fun, my family and friends all loved him, and of course, he captured every moment of the wedding in the most beautiful way. This man is a true talent and cannot go unrecognized. Photos were always my biggest worry when it came to planning my wedding, as I'm sure it is for most brides.  What drew me his work was Steve's effortless talent for creating whimsical portraits.  He not only caught every moment of my wedding day, but honestly kept me smiling throughout the entire night and for that I am eternally grateful. You will not regret this investment! Your photos are all you have after the wedding day is over. Make sure you chose a team that gives you what you deserve, make sure that team is Studio 41!

2015-02-11T14:53:27 Response from the vendor

Hi Mariam, thank you so much for your kind words. From the time we all met until the end of your wedding day, I kept thinking, this couple is amazing and I am happy to have been part of their special day. And I am... Read Less Read More

The Absolute BEST!!

Reviewed on 4/18/2014 Krissy K

I don't think there will ever be enough kind words to describe how absolutely amazing Studio 41 Photography is. Steve and his guys are hands down, the best I have ever seen! Not only are they passionate and professional, they are amazing, caring and FUN people! From our first... Read More meeting with Steve, we knew that we were not going to look any further for a photographer, and we have NEVER regretted that decision! Our engagement pictures turned out better than we had ever imagined (and we got them SO quickly!), and it made us that much more excited for our wedding. The guys fit right in with our wedding party, family, and friends - getting everyone to have fun and getting some GREAT pictures in the process. Every.Single.Person. I talked to had amazing things to say about our photographers - and they hadn't even seen the pictures yet! That shows you what a positive impact they had on our day :) Our wedding pictures came back SO QUICKLY and I can't stop looking at them! We have received nothing but compliments on the quality of photos and the quality of the PEOPLE with Studio 41. Brides, PLEASE do yourself a favor and meet with Steve, and then HIRE HIM!! I promise you, you will not regret working with him! He is amazing to watch work - he has that "eye" and you can just see the wheels turning, figuring out how to get the best shot, EVERY TIME. He has many different packages that will absolutely fit your budget and what you are looking for. Pictures are your lasting memories of your day and with Studio 41 Photography you will have breathtaking memories to last you always!!

2014-04-19T12:45:22 Response from the vendor

Krissy, these words are going to be hard to follow. All we can say is, thank you for giving us the opportunity to be part of your special day. We were honored to be there and seeing your day unfold the way it did. It... Read Less Read More

They were amazing!!!

Reviewed on 11/11/2015 Colleen S

We used Studio 41 as our Photographer and Videographer. Our whole experience with them was amazing!!! They made us feel extremely comfortable the whole time and had wonderful shot ideas! We are very pleased with them and I would recommend them to everyone!!!

Reviewed on 10/31/2015 Lindsey S

Our wedding was on 10-17-15. I don't think there is enough room here to write everything I want to say about Steve. In short, Steve is absolutely amazingggggggggg. Seriously!!!!! We felt so comfortable with Steve, that when it was over, it was sad that we wouldn't be seeing him... Read More again. How many vendors can you say that about?? He is such a wonderful, thoughtful and caring person. It's extremely obvious he is there for you and only wants to do whatever he can to give you the best pictures. He is with you from the time you wake up, till the time you leave the hall...that is rare to find these days!! We can't say enough about Steve and his videography team. They were an extremely large party of what made our wedding even more than we could have ever imagined! If you want a personable, caring, reasonably priced photographer and videographer, there is no need to look any further. Steve is your guy!!! I wish I could give him 100 stars because he truly deserves it!! Thank you so much Steve!!! Lindsey & Andrew

2015-10-31T10:05:27 Response from the vendor

Hi Lindsey, holy cow!!! All I can say is wow! Thank you, thank you thank you 😊. I read that review with kelly and it made me so happy to know that you and Andrew are happy and that makes me love what I do... Read Less Read More

Can I leave 100 stars?!?!

Reviewed on 10/15/2015 Katie E

Steve, Matt and I cannot thank you and Sam enough for all your hard work and dedication to us. Our engagement photos were so wonderful we really cannot wait to see what you did with the wedding! Listen up brides-to-be, husbands-to-be or anyone looking for a photographer GO SEE... Read More STEVE. He is such a nice guy and will keep you laughing through the difficult moments. But most of all, Steve is a professional. His work is art and you will feel privileged to have been his subject. I know that sounds corny but it is the truth! Steve will NOT disappoint.

Reviewed on 10/09/2015 Sarah P

Steve and Sam were absolutely amazing. They had high energy and excitement all day long and kept the wedding party entertained. Steve is creative and creates one of a kind images. I was floored away with the results. It will be hard to pick just a few to print out. I would... Read More highly recommend Steve and Studio 41 again.

Reviewed on 9/23/2015

Steve and his team were amazing on our wedding day! They were fun, super creative and fit right in! It was a big Indian wedding and they just went with it, they made sure they captured all the details and made it a memorable and special time! Steve and his team exceeded our... Read More expectations, and the photos speak for themselves. The studio 41 team is exceptional and very talented! Can't thank the team enough!

2015-09-24T11:43:44 Response from the vendor

Hi Kunjan, thanks so much for this amazing review. We truly appreciate it. We had a blast working with you and Hemal on your amazing wedding and we would love to be part of your future events as well. Can't wait to work on your... Read Less Read More

Reviewed on 9/21/2015 Courtney S

I first met Steve and the Studio 41 Photography team when I was in a wedding about two years ago. After all the fun we had that day, I knew when my special day came we HAD to have Steve! Today I can say that choosing Steve, Jake and the Studio 41 Photography & Videography team... Read More was the BEST decision we could have made for our wedding experience. From our engagement photos to our big day, working with Steve was a dream!! He is incredible to work with, engaging, HILARIOUS and his work ethic makes him a perfect choice for the most important decision you’ll make for your special day – capturing memories. We’ve received so many compliments on how comfortable he made everyone feel! Our bridal party loved them, our families loved them and we love them too! We will be recommending Studio 41 for years and years to come!

2015-09-21T15:49:52 Response from the vendor

Hi Courtney, thank you so very much for this review, we truly appreciate it. Your wedding was amazing, and you and Jamar are nothing short of awesome :) We thank you for helping us reach our 5th theknot best of weddings!! We hope to get... Read Less Read More

Reviewed on 9/19/2015 Natalia P

Steve and his team exceeded our expectations, hands down!! The photos are beautiful! The captured spontaneous shots were amazing... Steve was very creative and so much fun to be with all day. Exceptionally talented and the best out there!!

2015-09-20T19:04:09 Response from the vendor

Hi Natasha, Thank you so much for this wonderful review. It was our pleasure working with you on your beautiful wedding. We look forward to finishing your album and prints as well.

Reviewed on 8/19/2015

Working with Steve was the best decision my husband and I could have possibly made. the engagement photo shoot was full of laughter and fun, and our photos well let's just say we can't pick a favorite from the 500 he took. He was totally up for any suggestion we had, as well as... Read More having an eye for the perfect shots. We would be walking around down town Birmingham and he would say stand here, hold his hand look there and bam the shot is perfect. The turn around time for the engagement photos was unbelievable-one week! That never happens. He confirmed for the wedding twice and was at every location early! Not only did he work a 14 hour day he took advantage of every photo opportunity! We had to literally force him to eat! He had everyone laughing and havin a great time! Our photo teasers belong in magazines! The talent Steve and his team has is a gift from God! Thank you Steve for everything including a great friendship and unreal photographs to remember the best day of our life!

2015-08-20T10:25:08 Response from the vendor

Hi Melody and Anas, Thank you so much for this review. We had such an awesome time on your wedding day. We truly value your kind words in this review. I love the friendship that we have created and it made working with you two... Read Less Read More

Reviewed on 8/06/2015

I cannot tell you how amazing this company is... Long story short, my makeup artist bailed on me 3 hours prior to our start time and I could not stop crying. Vince was seriously a lifesaver and angel and kept me calm while he located a back-up MUA who took us in ASAP. Time was... Read More such an issue but Vince went out of his way to rush us to the venue and made jokes and conversation to divert my attention. Honest to god, one of the best people I've ever met. I recommend this company a thousand times over. Professional, detail-oriented, charismatic, passionate, you name it!! Don't look for anyone else- you've found the right one.

Reviewed on 8/02/2015 Amy K

Studio 41 is the best!! I can honestly say Steve is one of the most talented photographer's out there! My sister booked Steve 2 years ago for her wedding and I knew right then this was who I wanted to photograph my wedding. Steve is so great to work with and we had so much fun... Read More taking our photos for our engagement session and wedding!! There was never a dull moment as Steve (and Sam) had us laughing the whole time! My husband hates taking pictures and even he had a great time taking all of our photos. We had the absolute worst weather on our wedding day, horrible high winds and constant rain that never let up. Our venue was at a golf course, so our plan was to take all our pictures outside. From the moment Steve walked in to my parent's house, he instantly eased my worries because he had a plan! I am so happy with all the pictures both him and Sam were able to capture. I absolutely LOVE the pictures we were able to take in the rain right after the sun went down and the wind/rain let up just enough to get outside. He captured every single moment of our wedding and I relive each moment when look at each picture. Thank you so much Steve for a phenomenal experience and amazing photos!! Amy and Dave

2015-08-02T12:13:52 Response from the vendor

Hi Amy and Dave, This is truly an amazing review and we very much appreciate all the wonderful things you said. We had a great time and we loved your wedding, despite the rain and high winds, I want to thank you for working with... Read Less Read More

Reviewed on 6/10/2015 Danielle M

We can't say enough positive things about Steve and his team and how wonderful they were not only the day of our wedding, but throughout the whole process. He was always helpful and open to any suggestions that we had. What really impressed us was how creative his imagination... Read More was on the day of our wedding. We have had numerous comments on how beautiful the pictures are and how creative the shots were. He made each step of the way fun and always made us feel comfortable. We would highly recommend Studio 41 for wedding photos!

2015-06-10T18:55:46 Response from the vendor

Hi Danielle, Thanks so much for this wonderful review. It means a lot to us. It was our absolute pleasure to work with you and Gary. We hope to be part of your future occasions and cannot wait to work on your album and prints.

Reviewed on 6/01/2015 Amber A

Where do I even start. Steve and Sam were phenomenal! The weather for my wedding wasn't the best ( 100% rain and 54 degrees) but you wouldn't even know that by looking at my wedding pictures! They made us feel like it was 80 degrees and sunny. I didn't even have to stage my... Read More laughter in my pictures. Steve and Sam had us laughing the whole time and even was there for us for some advice. My husband and I can't thank them enough. I wasn't worried about how the pictures would turn out because I choose Steve for our engagement pictures. Studio 41's quality is better than 5 stars and to be completely honest their pictures are unique which I absolutely love! Take my advice and choose them for your special occasion.. You won't regret it! You get a perfect package.. A photographer, mentor, friend and comedian all in 1. Thank you so much! -Hussein & Amber Wedding date: May 31,2015


Reviewed on 4/14/2015 Ashley M

My husband and I could not have chosen better photographers! From the moment we met Steve, we all clicked. My mother and mother in law went to sign the contract with me and they were amazed with Steve and his pictures. When I was researching photographers I was looking for two... Read More things...unlimited hours and multiple photographers. He was the FIRST and ONLY company we actually met with. We could not be any happier with our pictures. We have had so many compliments about our pictures as if they should be in magazines! They took pictures when we weren't even realizing it and those were as amazing as the posed ones. Our families could not have been anymore impressed on the day of our wedding as to how personable Steve, Sam, and Wadi were. Steve has a great eye for taking incredible shots. We could not believe how many pictures we ended up with. I will forever refer this company as well as use them in the future. My husbands cousin is getting married in August and Steve is the photographer and cannot wait to see their pics! They are fantastic! Thank you for creating these memories that will last a lifetime from our fairytale day!

2015-04-15T22:06:26 Response from the vendor

Hi Ashley, thank you so much for this amazing review. It was an honor and our pleasure to have been part of your beautiful day. We thank you for giving us the opportunity to work with you and we look forward to working together on... Read Less Read More

Should be shooting for Vogue!

Reviewed on 4/13/2015 Amy W

Steve from Studio 41 is amazing!!! Not only as a photographer but also as a person! I am someone who hates posing for pictures but I love and appreciate the art of photography! He made pictures fun for my wedding day! ANDDDD when we got them back JUST 27 DAYS after our wedding,... Read More I was amazed!!!!! I couldn't believe how gorgeous they came out! I remember the day of he was posing my bridal party and it looked very weird so I was a little nervous but I decided to trust him because I felt the same way for our engagement pictures and they turned out gorgeous! Our pictures were not just memories captured. They were a true work of art (this coming from someone who loves photography art). He should seriously be shooting for Vogue or Travel Magazines! Our wedding was in the winter but we really wanted our pictures in Downtown Utica which is right next to a highway! He got all the best shots in that area! Seriously worth every penny! You only have one Wedding day! If your looking for just a person to capture memories, give your cousin a camera. If you looking for your memories to be a work of art, give Steve a call! Thank you Steve!!!

2015-04-13T22:21:35 Response from the vendor

Hi Amy, thank you so much for this amazing, and wonderful review. I can't express how grateful I am for this great review. I can't wait to work on your album and look forward to being part of your future events.

So happy we chose Studio 41!

Reviewed on 4/04/2015 Olga F

I simply cannot say enough good things about Studio 41! Many other reviewers here praised Studio 41 for beautiful and original photos, great value, and professionalism. I wholeheartedly agree with all those positive comments. But what I liked the most about working with Steve... Read More (and Sam too) is his undeniable, genuine desire to do a great job for us and to get the most beautiful pictures possible. I have NEVER seen a photographer- or any wedding vendor for that matter- work this hard! All day long, Steve was focused on his task. He arrived early and left late. He tirelessly captured every single important moment of the day and then some. He continuously came up with creative ideas of capturing all sorts of details about the wedding. He was extremely helpful throughout the day as he kept us and our bridal party on schedule and helped with logistics, all the while telling jokes and making everyone laugh and just feel good about themselves as he kept snapping away. He amazed everyone with his professionalism, friendliness and charisma. I had multiple guests comment on what an awesome photographer we had! Steve worked tirelessly during our engagement session as well. It was our first time working together, but right away my husband and I felt relaxed and had lots of fun thanks to Steve's wonderful sense of humor and his creativity. Steve literally risked being stung by a giant bumble bee to get a pretty shot of my ring on a flower (with a bee already on it!) and he crawled through some wet/scratchy bushes to get a perfect shot of my husband and me in the woods. As if that wasn't enough, he literally lay in the middle of the road to get a stunning panoramic photo of us with gorgeous fall colors in the background. If that's not dedication, I don't know what is!!! Despite the fact that our chosen package was far not the most expensive one, Steve never made us feel rushed or unimportant. Quite the opposite! He spent ample time meeting with us and discussing our wedding details and itinerary. He always made himself available to discuss further details by phone or email- and returned my texts and phone call promptly without fail. Whenever we met, Steve always made me feel like I was his favorite bride to work with. He tirelessly listened to our input and answered our questions. Because of these qualities, my husband and I felt very comfortable in front of Steve and Sam's cameras and the results are just wonderful. Thank you Steve for all your help on our wedding day, and for the beautiful photos we will always cherish. We wish you great success and hope you will continue to make people happy with your work for many years to come!

2015-04-04T09:33:08 Response from the vendor

Hi Olga, wow!! Thank you from the bottom of our hearts for this wonderful review. It is an amazing feeling to read and know what you think. And you deserve all of it :) We can't wait to be part of your future events as... Read Less Read More

So Happy!!!

Reviewed on 4/02/2015 Spring

Steve and his team were an absolute pleasure to work with. Not only are they creative and professional in their photography, but their easygoing and fun personalities made the day go by smoothly. The photos turned out fantastic! We really like the high quality imaging of them -... Read More no pixels or blurriness at all. And it truly felt like they captured events from the whole day to make it like a picture story, from getting ready in the morning all the way to kissing goodnight. I would recommend Studio 41 for any wedding, big or small! Thank you, Steve, for giving us pictures we will love for a lifetime!!!

2015-04-03T16:17:23 Response from the vendor

Hi April, thank you so much for this wonderful review and the kind words. It was a true pleasure being part of your big day :) thank you.

Absolutely Phenomenal

Reviewed on 3/25/2015

Steve and Sam were absolutely amazing. They were professional, fun, and very easy to work with. They worked well with family members that were a little more "difficult" to deal with too. I had so much fun with them. They captured so many great shots. I really could not have... Read More asked for a better experience. I am so happy with the results and if I had to do it all over again, I wouldn't change a thing. They are so dependable and just wonderful to work with. I can't say enough positive things. Would recommend Studio 41 any day of the week!

2015-03-25T14:41:02 Response from the vendor

Hi Monica, Thank you so much for this wonderful review. We really appreciate the kind words that you have said about us. And honestly, you guys did half the job :) so thank you for being so easy and fun to work with also. You... Read Less Read More

Stop looking anywhere else!

Reviewed on 2/24/2015 Hanadi D

I have never in my life, written a review about anything or anyone, so this is huge (well, for me at least). I wanted to make sure to take the time to let anyone looking for high quality pictures, and an amazing-- no wait, absolutely AMAZINGLY amazing, person to work with, know... Read More that you've come to the right place! My hubby and I just got married on Valentines Day, 2015. I can not tell you how magical that day was. Words can not describe it, but my photos can, because that perfect day was captured by Steve and Sam perfectly. My only issue is that I'm struggling with how many of the pictures we can actually put up in our house without seeming narcissistic. They're all so beautiful! I am IN LOVE! Steve is truly the kindest, most hard working person I've ever met in this field. He is so, very friendly, extremely accommodating and reassuring, so professional, and hilarious! He is so passionate and it is evident in his work and his super upbeat, and positive attitude. This is the type of professional you would want working with you on your wedding day. I promise you this! Take it from me. I will honestly admit, I was a bit of a Bridezilla, and I am most definitely a perfectionist, so take my word for it, and trust me, you will not be disappointed! We love you Studio 41! We look forward to using you in the future for other events! Love, H+A

2015-02-24T22:54:19 Response from the vendor

Hi Hanadi, WOW! Thank you so much for the wonderful review and your kind words about Sam and I. We really loved working with you, Adam, and the whole family. I want to thank you for giving us the opportunity to have been part of... Read Less Read More


Reviewed on 11/20/2014 Tanika J

Studio 41 - There are just no words to describe the creativity, impeccable service, timeliness, professionalism and fun that we experienced with them. They were not just our vendor, they became our friends. We absolutely fell in love with Steve and his team. From a fun... Read More engagement shoot (in the cold and rain) to an emotional wedding day full of fun, laughs and love - they added joy to our day. We live in Chicago but had our wedding in Michigan. When we need a photographer, we will be coming back home or paying for them to come to us! We will NEVER use another photographer other than Studio 41. They had an eye to bring our artistic vision to life. We will forever be able to relive our wedding day for years to come with the priceless memories that they captured. Steve has gone above and beyond to ensure that we are happy! You can't go wrong with choosing Studio 41!

2014-11-21T16:02:00 Response from the vendor

Hi Tanika, all I can say is wow. Thank you so very much for be review you have left about us here. We are honored to have been a part of your big day and even more honored to be your friends. You and Maurice... Read Less Read More

Best Photographer Around

Reviewed on 11/12/2014 Lindsay M

Where do I begin?? We recently received the photos from our wedding day and we are blown away. Originally, we had wanted to book a videographer in addition to a photographer. Steve captured every moment of our big day through the photos - it is all we wanted and so much more.... Read More The quality of the images is phenomenal, the price is hard to beat, and his personality truly added to our big day! We love that we have all the photos on a disc to view any time and print photos as we wish. Steve made the entire process extremely easy and stress-free. I highly recommend stopping your search for a photographer here - you won't be disappointed!

2014-11-13T18:58:29 Response from the vendor

Hi Lindsay, thank you so much for this great review. It really means a lot to us. You and Kevin are awesome. Sam and I had a great time and thank you for giving us the opportunity to be part of your big day. We... Read Less Read More


Reviewed on 11/03/2014 Noelle C

I used this photographer for my engagement photos and my wedding photos. I have not received my wedding photos, only saw a few on a slideshow at my reception. I can imagine they will be wonderful. My engagement pictures came out amazing! Steve is very nice to work with and he... Read More takes pictures that are so different than other ones I've seen! I also used them for my videographer! I cannot wait to see the video and my wedding pictures. I would definitely recommend them!

2014-11-04T11:58:46 Response from the vendor

Hi Noelle, thank you very much for the wonderful review. We really appreciate your kind words and your photos are looking amazing. We can't wait to work on the final product.

So Glad We Chose Studio 41!!!!!!!!

Reviewed on 10/05/2014 Kiana S

Where do I begin...the reviews are absolutely true!! Book Studio 41 for your wedding right now!!! For me, photography was on the top 3 list of most important things for my wedding and I was very selective about which service to choose from since there are quite a few options... Read More out there. Originally I read the reviews for Studio 41 and all of them were so positive I just had to check them out!! I went on the website and immediately fell in love with their style because it was just so unique and I called Studio 41 right afterwards to lock in my wedding date. The first time I spoke with Steve, I just knew we would get along, and I just knew Studio 41 was the perfect fit. Best decision ever - The team was absolutely a delight to work with. From start to finish, I had zero issues. Everything went smoothly. We had so many people at our wedding giving positive comments and reviews about the photographers and how FUN they were! (I think they had a good time themselves at our wedding, which helps!) On top of that, they were flexible, creative, encouraging, organized and all of them had a great eye. They relaxed me on my wedding day because I was just having so much fun. Furthermore, Steve is very responsive - whenever I have a question, he's very easy to get a hold of and responds promptly. When we received our pictures (extremely fast by the way), they were absolutely stunning - all of them. I can't get over how beautiful they are, I'm just so happy with everything and I can't thank Studio 41 enough! We had a very eclectic wedding with a lot of things going on, but they somehow captured everything!! I can look at the pictures and literally replay the wedding step by step but through an artistic lens. I'm just so overjoyed. If you're looking for photography, I can tell you - you won't go wrong choosing Studio 41. If photography is important to you, I highly recommend trusting Studio 41 - you're in good hands and will be very pleased with the output from this highly experienced team. Its very apparent that Studio 41 really loves what they're doing and they focus on the details and capturing all of your special memories. You can't go wrong with them, I promise. Thank you so much Studio 41!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!